Can you briefly introduce Quaker Chemical? Daniel Watts: Quaker Chemical is a leading global provider of metalworking fluids, process fluids and technical expertise. We supply a wide range of industries, including automotive, aerospace, tube and pipe, steel, aluminum and cans. What innovations does Quaker bring to these markets? D.W.: As an example, we are expanding our 2PAQ technology throughout Europe with a boron-free and formaldehyde-free version of this concept. Can you remind us what a 2PAQ technology is? D.W.: 2PAQ is a two-component fluid that uses separate alkaline and oil phases for machining, grinding and cleaning operations. If you use the alkaline phase as cleaner, the spent wash fluid can be reused to top up the cutting fluid, reducing both waste and cost. What are the benefits of this technology? D.W.: First, significant savings and environmental benefits: it reduces considerably waste generation and associated costs, while providing improvements in machining operations. The quantity of fresh water needed for top-ups is also minimal, as this operation can be done with the recycled cleaner. What is your response to the Health & Safety challenges faced by the metalworking fluid industry? D.W.: Our efforts to address regulatory changes have led us to develop higher performing boron-free products. The new pH buffer system is the base for our boron-free and formaldehyde-free micro-emulsion product, QUAKERCOOL® 7200 HBFF, which is ideally suited to operations where high surface finish quality and high lubrication is needed. And how would it help operators? D.W.: We have clearly measured lower forces and torques in our aluminium machining protocols: drilling with internal and external cooling, tapping and reaming with external cooling. However, the biggest improvement is in the aluminium surface finish: in reaming operations, we reached a much lower Ra (Roughness Average) and Rz (Mean Roughness Depth) compared to the reference product. Can you talk about the challenges of machining "new" materials? D.W.: For example, Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) continues to grow within the automotive and truck industry. CGI has higher strength properties, compared to conventional grey cast irons. This enables the production of thinner walled and subsequently lighter weight engine components, such as cylinder heads and engine blocks. What is your offer to address the challenge of machining CGI? D.W.: Using our in-house CNC machines, Quaker has developed a micro-emulsion that excels in heavy-duty machining, grinding and honing operations on CGI. For example, one major machine tool manufacture was recently building a large comprehensive system to machine heavy truck diesel motors from CGI. In testing conducted on production parts, the Quaker coolant gave 30% improvement in tool life, against the top product offered up by our largest competitor. In addition to improving tool life, which will allow greater up-time between tool changes, this coolant also facilitates increased metal removal rates on CGI, requiring fewer machines to be purchased. For more information, please visit